Sequence characterization and polymorphism of melanocortin 1 receptor gene in some goat breeds with different coat color of Mongolia

Objective: Extension and Agouti loci play a key role for proportions of eumelanin and pheomelanin in determining coat color in several species, including goat. Mongolian goats exhibit diverse types of coat color phenotypes. In this study, investigation of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) coding region in different coat colors in Mongolian goats was performed to ascertain the presence of the extension allele.

Methods: A total of 105 goat samples representing three goat breeds were collected for this study from middle Mongolia. A 938 base pair (bp) long coding region of the MC1R gene was sequenced for three different breeds with different coat colors (Gobi Gurwan Saikhan: complete black, Zalaa Jinstiin Tsagaan: complete white, Mongolian native goat: admixture of different of coat colors). The genotypes of these goats were obtained from analyzing and comparing the sequencing results.

Results: A total of seven haplotypes defined by five substitution were identified. The five single nucleotide polymorphisms included two synonymous mutations (c.183C>T and c.489G>A) and three missense (non­synonymous) mutations (c.676A>G, c.748T>G, and c.770T>A). Comparison of genotypes frequencies of two common missense mutions using chi­sqaure (x2) test revealed significant differences between coat color groups (p<0.001). A logistic regression analysis additionally suggested highly significant association between genotypes and variation of black versus white uniform combination. Alternatively, most investigated goats (60.4%) belonged to H2 (TGAGT) haplotype.

Conclusion: According to the findings obtained in this study on the investigated coat colors, mutations in MC1R gene may have the crucial role for determining eumelanin and pheomelanin phenotypes. Due to the complication of coat color phenotype, more detailed investigation needed.

Keywords: Coat Color; Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R); Missense Mutation;  Mongolian Goat

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Sequence characterization and polymorphism of melanocortin 1 receptor gene in some goat breeds with different coat color of Mongolia

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